Sunday, 4 May 2014


Great to talk to so many of you this morning, exciting to hear snippets of your journeys and really pleased to share in your questioning of dance research.

As promised, here are our presentation guidelines ahead of submission of your written papers on the 13th.

Any questions, on this or your work in general, do get in touch.

Looking forward to seeing you on June 2.


Presentation of Essays
Essays should be typed, 1.5 or double spaced, on one side of the paper only. 

Please justify the margins on both sides. Fonts: use Times New Roman, Arial or Garamond. 

The cover page should include; 
your name
student number
programme and year
module number and title
module tutor
full title of assignment and date written and word count.

Please do not use bold type or underlining in your essay, but italicize any foreign words as well as book titles and titles of choreographic works, plays or films. Use single quotes (‘and “double quotes” inside single quotes’).
1)            References in bibliography:
A bibliography is a list of all source material you have used, whether or not you have quoted from it. It is important to show that you have extended your knowledge by referring to other texts/works/authorities. A bibliography should be presented in alphabetical order of author’s surname. There are various ways of setting out a bibliography, but the details should always include:

Surname, Initial(s). Date of publication. Title in italics. Place of Publication: Publisher.

For example:
Ostwald, P. 1999. Vaslav Nijinsky. A Leap into Madness. London: Robson Books.

Edited book:

Surname, Initial(s). (ed.). Date of publication. Title in italics. Place: Publisher.

For example:
Carter, A. (ed.). 1998. The Routledge Dance Studies Reader. London: Routledge.

Book chapter:

Surname, Initial(s). Date. Chapter title. In Name of editor (ed.), Book Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, pages in book.

For example:
Carter, A. 1996. Bodies of knowledge: Dance and feminist analysis. In Patrick Campbell (ed.), Analysing performance. A critical reader. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 43-55.

Journal articles:

Surname, Initial(s). Date. Title of article. Title of journal volume (issue no.), page numbers.

For example:

Gill, R., and Pratt, A. 2008. In the Social Factory? Immaterial Labour, Precariousness and Cultural Work. Theory, Culture & Society 25(7), 1–30.

Videography / DVDs (a list of videos /DVDs you have used):

Name of choreographer. Date of work. Title of work in italics. [DVD/video, etc]. Place of distribution, distributing company.

For example:
Khan, A. and Cherkaoui, S.L. 2008. Zero Degrees [DVD]. Sadler’s Wells on Screen. Axiom Films International Limited.

Media broadcast, e.g. television programme

Title. Year. Type of media. Originator (e.g. channel). Exact date and time of broadcast.

For example:
The Culture Show. 2013. TV. BBC2. 13th March, 2200 hrs.

Live performance:

Choreographer. Year of premiere. Title in italics. Company (optional). [Location. Date seen].

For example:
Ashton, F. 1948. Cinderella. [Royal Opera House, London. 13 January 2004].

Newspaper articles:
1)    Printed:
Surname, Initial(s). Title of article. Title of newspaper, day and month of article, page number.

For example:
Rae, B. 2008. Mozart dances at Civic Theatre. The New Zealand Herald, 25 August, 11.

2)    Electronic:
Surname, Initial(s). Year of publication. Title of Article. Title of Newspaper in italics [online]. Day and month of article. Page number of article - if applicable. Available from: URL of database supplier [accessed date].

For example:
Dickson, Andrew. 2011. Immersive Theatre: It Was a Ghost in the Library with a Violin. The Guardian [online]. 4 July, 14. Available from: [accessed 2 January 2012].

Internet References

Electronic references should contain the following elements:
Surname, initial(s) of author (if known). Date. Title of document [Type of resource, i.e. Online]. Organisation responsible (optional). Available from: Title of Website [accessed date].
For example:
With author:
Cvejic, B. 2010. Xavier Le Roy: The Dissenting Choreography of One Frenchman Less. Available from:
Without author:
BBC News. 2008. Factory gloom worst since 1980 [online]. Available from: [accessed 10 June 2012].
Note: Dates are not always available for web pages. If this is so use (n.d.) to represent no date so that the reader knows you have omitted this element. In the in-text quotation, please reference as follows: Cvejic, 2010 (first example); BBC News, 2008 (second example).

Students should only use internet references when no other possibility for gaining this information exists. This is sometimes the case with current dance performances or choreographers. Dance students are not allowed to use Wikipedia or quotation websites for their assignments. They frequently provide incorrect and plagiarised information or quotations taken out of context which are not a means to find relevant academic information. 

Other source material may be listed e.g. Interviews’; there are no definitive guidelines for the presentation of these, but please give as much information as possible. For interviews give the name and role of person you interviewed, date and place of interview.
2)            In-text quotations
References should follow the Harvard style whereby references are cited in the text as (author, date: page) with full details in the bibliography at the end of the article. As a rule, page numbers should also be present unless the quotation refers to a very general argument or idea. Quotations of three lines or more should be indented in a separate paragraph. Please note that in-text quotations do not include the initial(s) of the author, but initial(s) should be stated in the bibliography.
Direct quotations:
- Phillips (2002: 43) noted that ‘contemporary dance in New Zealand is evolving rapidly’.         
- ‘Contemporary dance in New Zealand is evolving rapidly’ (Phillips, 2002: 43).
If author is not known:       
- This was obviously not the case before 2001 (Beating the Millenium Bug, 2003: 14)
- In Beating the Millenium Bug (2001: 14), it is claimed that this was not the case before 2001.
Secondary sources:                                                                                                          
- Smith (cited in Martin, 1991: 152) stated that one medium can be used in many different ways.                                                                                                                     
- One medium can be used in many different ways (Smith, cited in Martin, 1991: 52). 
Indirect quotations/paraphrasing a passage from a text:                                                                                                                            

- As the economy heated up, the government support for the arts cooled down (Horosko, 2002).                   
- Horosko states that as the economy heated up, the government support for the arts cooled down (2002).
When paraphrasing, you need to state the page number as if it were a direct quotation. If paraphrasing an argument that extends over several pages, you need to state this page range in full (e.g. 58-61). In the above example we can assume that this is an online source as there is no page number stated.

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